Abstract

Fermentation in solid state culture (SSC) has been the focus of increasing interest because of its potential for industrial applications. In previous studies SSC of pomegranate wastes by Aspergillus niger has been extensively developed and optimized for the recovery of ellagic acid (EA), a high value bioactive. In this study we comparatively investigated the SSC of powdered pomegranate husks by A. niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and evaluated the recovery yields of EA by an ultrasound and microwave-assisted 7:3 water/ethanol extraction. Surprisingly enough, the yields obtained by S. cerevisiae fermentation (4% w/w) were found 5-fold higher than those of the A. niger fermented material, with a 10-fold increase with respect to the unfermented material. The EA origin was traced by HPLC analysis that showed a significant decrease in the levels of punicalagin isomers and granatin B and formation of punicalin following fermentation. Other extraction conditions that could warrant a complete solubilization of EA were evaluated. Using a 1:100 solid to solvent ratio and DMSO as the solvent, EA was obtained in 4% yields from S. cerevisiae fermented husks at a high purity degree. Hydrolytic treatment of S. cerevisiae fermented pomegranate husks afforded a material freed of the polysaccharides components that gave recovery yields of EA up to 12% w/w.

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/20/3689